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Download An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E by Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole PDF

By Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole

ISBN-10: 1444146084

ISBN-13: 9781444146080

A brand new version of the UK's normal advent to the risks awarded by means of ionizing radiation and the tools of defense and control.

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Additional info for An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E

Example text

Gross damage occurs in the lining of the intestine, followed by severe bacterial invasion. This is called the region of gastrointestinal death. At much higher doses, survival times become progressively shorter. There are very few human data in this region, but from animal experiments the symptoms indicate some damage to the central nervous system and hence the region is called the region of central nervous system death. However, it is found that death is not instantaneous even in animals irradiated with doses in excess of 500 Gy.

3 RADIATION FROM TERRESTRIAL SOURCES The rocks and soil of the Earth’s strata contain small quantities of the radioactive elements uranium and thorium and their daughter products. The concentration of these elements varies considerably depending on the type of rock formation. In sandstone and limestone regions the concentration is much lower than in granite. Thus the dose rate depends on the geographic location. 35 mSv/year. In some areas, the dose rate may be several times higher than this value.

This area is 4pr2 and so the flux F is given by: F= Q neutrons per square metre per second (n/m2/s) 4pr2 Note that if r is doubled, r2 increases fourfold and F reduces fourfold. 31. 5 m from a source which emits 2 ¥ 107 n/s. 4 ¥ 106 n/m2/s. 1 TBq cobalt-60 source. 1 TBq = 1011 dis/s, but for 60Co there are two g-photons per disintegration. 6 ¥ 1010 g photons/m2/s. 4. The gray describes an absorbed dose in any medium and the sievert expresses the biological effect on the human body. In radiation protection, it is clearly the biological effect of radiation that is of interest and so, whenever possible equivalent dose or effective dose should be used.

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