By Philip Eubanks
This learn via Philip Eubanks demanding situations conventional bills of metaphor and considerably expands theories of "conceptual" metaphor via reading alternate Is battle because it happens in concrete discourse.
Although scholarly curiosity in metaphor as a classy, linguistic, and cognitive phenomenon has lengthy persevered, Eubanks is without doubt one of the first to contemplate metaphor in its sociohistorical position. wondering significant bills of metaphor from Aristotle to the current, Eubanks argues that metaphor is not only encouraged through yet really is constituted by means of its concrete operation.
Far-reaching in its implications for our realizing of metaphor, Eubanks's premise permits us to determine metaphor as a sweeping rhetorical entity at the same time it bills for the extra localized operations of metaphor of curiosity to linguists, philosophers of language, and cognitive scientists. delivering a brand new version of metaphoric functioning, Eubanks reconsiders the main promising account of metaphor so far, the concept of "conceptual metaphor."
Eubanks specializes in the conceptual metaphor exchange Is War-a metaphor came upon anywhere humans speak about enterprise and commerce-to improve his rhetorical version of metaphor. He analyzes exchange Is conflict because it happens in the print information media, on tv dialogue exhibits, in educational works, in well known nonfiction and novels, in historical financial observation, and in concentration crew speak. whereas those examples do show a wealthy kind within the makeup of alternate Is struggle, even more than mere kind is at stake.
Trade Is warfare is implicated in a longer and rhetorically advanced dialog with different metaphors and literal strategies: exchange is peace, exchange Is a online game, exchange Is Friendship, alternate is a trip, and Markets Are boxes. the popularity and research of this constituting dialog furthers a reevaluation conception. What additionally emerges, despite the fact that, is a important portrait of the discourse of alternate itself, a discourse that relies importantly upon a responsive interchange of metaphors.
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Additional resources for A War of Words in the Discourse of Trade: The Rhetorical Constitution of Metaphor
But broadly shared patterns of thought do not preclude important patterns of variation—patterns that can only be examined by looking at standard locutions, novel locutions, and the nature of the conversations that prompt the utterance of metaphors. As with man is a wolf, we cannot understand how the metaphor works unless we understand the conversation that prompts the specific utterance. Metaphors are subject to the top-down forces of discourse. Since I argue that the patterns of variation are evident among the concrete instantiation of conceptual metaphors, I urge caution in making inferences from common expressions.
What are the structural rules that govern the equation of A and B? How can we predict which features will become salient in a metaphor? In other words, metaphor theorists have performed what Thomas Kuhn has called “normal science,” a kind of “research firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements, achievements that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice” (10). In other words, metaphor theorists have done fine brushwork on an Aristotelian canvas.
It is necessary, therefore, to describe how this rhetorical relation works. Ordinarily, when theorists concede that metaphors are contingent upon communicative situations, the contingency is seen as a matter of face-toface conversation, as if metaphor is constrained only by the ad hoc cooperation of one speaker with another. Consequently, it is assumed that when a metaphor’s interpretation is influenced by something other than form, the possibilities for interpretation are infinite. So long as a given speaker provides sufficient interpretive cues, and so long as the hearer willingly takes up the suggested interpretation, the metaphor can be reinvented, within the limits of its form, ad infinitum.